1. A young Saudi male came with fever, Arthralgia, Sweating, Heptato-splenomegaly & myalgia your diagnosis is?
2. What type of fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis?
Borrelia recurrentis and duttoni cause relapsing fever. B. burgdorferi cause lyme disease and Q fever is caused by coxiella burnetti.
3. Vaginal discharge is absent in?
G.vaginalis produce fishy smelling discharge, TV produce thin bubbly fishy smelling discharge, Chlamydia produce thin discharge. Cryptococcus is a lung infection.
4. In a patient with rabies infection, the main histological characteristic in the brain is:
5. Which of the following is not an aminoglycoside?
6. For penicillin resistant pneumococci, which is used?
7. Sideroblastic anaemia seen in all except?
Sideroblastosis occurs due to; - Lead poisoning due to inhibition of enzyme of heme and globin synthesis. - Alcoholism, due to interference with heme and pyridoxal kinase. - Chloramphenicol; inhibits protoporphyrin. - Other causes: ↓vit B6, thalassemia, excessive dietary Fe, anti-TB and cycloserine.
8. In HUS, all are true except:
HUS occurs in children following VTEC enteritis (also after salmonella, shigella, streptococcal infection, as an autoimmune disease and following drugs e.g. cycloserine. It is characterized by: - Thrombosis in small vessels. - Fragmentation of RBCs. - Reduced platelets (consumptive). - Uremia.
9. In G6PD deficiency avoid all the following drugs except:
(e) Agents causing HA in G6PD deficiency include: - Antimalarials e.g. primaquine. - Sulphonamides and Sulphones (dapsone). - Analgesics e.g. salicylic acid - Antihelmenthics e.g. niridazol. - Miscellaneous e.g. vitamin K analogues, probanecid.
10. Anemia of chronic diseases includes:
None of the above. Regarding erythropoietic factors, in ACD there is increased secretion of TNF and IL-1 reduce Epo production
11. Regarding cold agglutinins:
e. a and c. Cold agglutinins are IgM, work at 4°c. It is anti I in IMN and in idiopathic type, or both anti I and anti i in lymphocellular disorders.
12. Acute monocytic leukemia is associated with?
Monoblasts are +ve for NS & butyrate estrase. There is also tissue infiltration (gums with hypertrophy)
13. Thrombocytosis seen in all except?
d. Fanconi’s syndrome. Fanconi syndrome is congenital aplastic anemia with pancytopenia and absent megakaryocytes.
14. In Hemophilia A which is correct?
a. APTT is prolonged
15. Which test is used to diagnose factor XIII deficiency?
In FXIII deficiency there is normal clotting by extrinsic and intrinsic tests and TCT. However clots are friable and dissolve in 5M urea within few hours.
16. Which of the following tests is used to monitor red cell production?
17. Which of the following conditions will increase ESR?
18. Endotoxins are chemically:
Endotoxins are integral part of G-ve bacteria. They are LPS whereas exotoxins are polypeptides.
19. Bacterial genes are transferred by all of the following means except:
The transfer of genetic information between bacterial cells can occur by 3 methods: conjugation, transduction and transformation (see table p16 Jawetz review)
20. Food poisoning symptom [vomiting] 4 hrs after ingestion of food seen in?
b. staph aureus enterotoxin is the correct answer
21. Test used to differentiate staph. aureus
b. Coagulase is used to diagnose staph aureus (positive) from other staph and strept. Catalase is used to differentiate staph from strept., Dnase and ASOT are used to diagnose strept.
22. Which test is used to ascertain toxigenicity of C. diphtheria?
Elick's test is in vitro plate test for toxin production. Schick test in an ID test for susceptibility to diphtheria, if immune →-ve (no reaction).
23. The arthropod vector of malaria is:
24. Cytological examination of pleural effusion in a 60 yrs old man revealed the presence of malignant cells. The most likely primary tumor will be:
(d) Lung cancer: 75% of malignant pulmonary effusions are due to 3 causes; lung cancer (30%), breast cancer (25%) & lymphoma (20%). Practically, cytological examination only establishes the presence of malignant effusion, however, in most cases it cannot identify the primary site of the tumor. Regarding mesothelioma, it is a rather a rare tumor of the pleura.
25. Hypernatremia occurs with
Hypernatremia occurs with: * ↓body Na : due to extrarenal water loss or renal diuresis. * Normal body Na: due to extrarenal loss e.g. hyperthermia or renal loss e.g. DI. * Na retention e.g. steroids or Na intake.
26. All are inborn error of glycogen metabolism except?
Essential fructosuria is due to aldolase B defect leading to accumulation of fructose-1-P Galactosemia (serious) is due to decreased Galactose-6-P uridyl transferase leading to decreased glycogen synthesis. Types of glycogen storage diseases (GSD) include: Type I (VonGierke's): ↓ G6P Type II (Pompe's): ↓ lysosomal maltase Type III (Cori's) : ↓debranching enzyme. Type IV (Anderson's): Absent debranching enzyme Type V (McArdle's): ↓ muscles phosphorylation.
27. Bile duct obstruction can be diagnosed by:
Cholestatic hyperbilirubinemia is characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and hyperbilirubinuria (only the conjugated fraction appears in urine).
28. Increased jaundice is diagnosis by
(a) Estimation of jaundice depends on serum bilirubin, other mentioned tests help to identify the cause of jaundice.
29. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by all except:
Nephrotic syndrome consists of: - Heavy proteinuria. - Hypoalbuminemia. - Oedema. - Hypercholesterolemia (Almost always present). -Hypertriglyceridemia is present in 50% of cases.